Certificate Management Basics
Getting Apache to serve up authenticated/encrypted pages via SSL/TLS was a bit of an ordeal, so I thought I'd document the procedure here. There aren't that many steps, but unless you're familiar with certificates and what they're used for, you'll be flailing.
I don't deal with cryptography everyday, so I constantly have to remind myself how the whole thing works. Hence, this section.
Also, there's a bit of a gap between the general concepts and the concrete stuff like "How do I secure Apache using openssl?". I've written another page concerning the latter.
Public Key Cryptography
Public key cryptography refers to the use of certain mathematical algorithms to generate what is known as a public/private key pair. The public key is just that: public. You can publish it, shout it from the roof tops, whatever. The private key is just that: private. You must keep it absolutely secure and secret. Each user of a public key cryptographic system must have one of these pairs of keys.
There are two main uses of public key cryptography:
Encryption: If you want to talk to a particular user (computer/person, etc.), and you want what you say to be encrypted/confidential (i.e. gibberish to anyone other than the intended user), you need that user's public key. Call that person user B (you can be user A). You take your data and you encrypt it with user B's public key. Now, the only way to decrypt it is with the user B's private key, which he has presumably kept safe and secure (you hope). Voila, you have created a message that only user B can read (more accurately, you have created a message that only someone who possesses user B's private key can read, which you hope is actually user B, since he has presumably kept that private key safe and secure).
Signatures: If you (user A) want to give a message to user B, you can sign it with your private key. User B, wanting to verify that the message actually came from User A (in other words, wanting to authenticate the message from user A to user B), can verify the signature with user A's public key. If the signature is verified, you can be reasonably sure that user A signed the data (or, more accurately, you can be reasonably sure that the possessor of user A's private key has signed the data, which is presumably user A himself, since he kept that private key safe and secure, right? Right?)
Digital Certificates (or Public Key Certificates)
Digital Certificates build on the idea of public key cryptography. A Digital Certificate is an electronic document that binds together a public key and identity information, like a name, organization, etc. If the certificate is supposed to identify a server, for example, the name is the server's domain name. In most cases, the certificate is then signed with a Certificate's Authority's (CA's) private key (there are other schemes here, but they all involve signing the certificate). If you have the CA's public key, you can verify the signature in the certificate. The idea here is that, if you trust the CA, you can be sure that the public key in the certificate does in fact belong to the identity in said certificate. It all comes down to trusting the CA.
How do you get the CA's public key? Usually these are obtained via the CA's own certificate, which contains their public key and identity. This certificate can be signed by yet another CA, or it can be self-signed, in which case it is called a root certificate. Root certificates are often distributed with web browsers.
Certificate Signing Requests
Certificate Signing Requests (CSRs) are effectively unsigned certificates. The process of signing a CSR turns it into a legitimate certificate. You can sign a certificate with a CA, or you can create a self-signed certificate, which is signed by the same entity that creates the certificate.
Please see CertificateManagementWithOpenssl for information on how to put this information into practice.